How are pharmaceuticals classified?
Pharmaceuticals are classified by the Italian Pharmaceutical Agency (AIFA) into two classes: Class A and Class C.
Class A includes essential pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals for chronic disease.
Included are medicines with an evaluated effectiveness on:
- An increase in life expectancy;
- A decrease in invalidating complications resulting from the disease;
- An improvement in quality of life.
All pharmaceuticals at the expense of the National Healthcare System are in this category, as well those in category H, which are used in hospitals and can be purchased by the public only through the prescription of a specialist or hospital centers.
Class C includes pharmaceuticals for less severe diseases. These are medicines that are subject to a medical prescription without the medicinal characteristics of Class A and pharmaceuticals not subject to a medical prescription not authorized for advertising to the public.
Class C-bis includes pharmaceuticals not subject to medical prescription, authorized for advertising to the public (OTC).
Pharmaceuticals in Class C and C-bis are fully at the expense of the patient.
What is a bacteriostatic agent?
A bacteriostatic agent is an antibiotic that is able to prevent the replication of bacteria, without killing them. Bacteriostatic agents are used to limit a bacterial infection in progress, allowing it to be removed by the immune system.
Inhibiting replication occurs by interfering with the production of bacterial proteins or with other aspects of metabolism, such as the replication of their DNA.
What is an antibiotic?
An antibiotic is a natural or synthetic pharmaceutical, able to slow or stop the proliferation of bacteria inside an organism.
There are bacteriostatic antibiotics, which block reproduction, as well as bactericide antibiotics, which kill the microorganism. They have no effect, however, on viruses, fungi or parasites.
What is Ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen is an active ingredient with pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory and fever reducing properties. It belongs to the group nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the most common category for treating rheumatic disease.
The anti-inflammatory action occurs by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins, while it relieves pain by sedating pain from trauma, muscles or wounds. Its effectiveness depends on the intensity of the discomfort, however, as Ibuprofen is recommended for slight to medium pain.
What is Diclofenac?
Diclofenac is a pharmaceutical that is part of the NSAID category (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), used as an anti-inflammatory and fever reducer.
It is commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis and generally and in other skeletal-muscle diseases; in acute gout; for post-operational pain, in surgery or in cases of ocular trauma.
What is Lactobacillus acidophilus?
It is a bacterium that produces lactic acid as the major product of glucose fermentation.
It generates considerable benefits for people, producing compounds that inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and helps the elimination of toxins produced by proteolytic bacteria. The pasteurization of milk destroys the microbial contents of this bacterium, therefore many producers later add probiotic formulations to obtain products able to produce benefits for the consumer.
What is Chloroxylenol?
It is a compound with antibacterial action used to keep populations of bacteria, algae and fungi in antibacterial soaps, containers, emulsions and paints under control.
It works through lysis on bacterial membranes, and is not toxic to humans.